If the restoring or changing TLS settings does solve your problem then you need to uninstall your main antivirus (It is likely a third-party which is not Windows Defender and runs in a background) and restart. From my experience, only disabling them is not enough. The internet services should be restored after restarting your machine. You can reinstall the antivirus and not have problems.
I encountered a same problem when my Windows 10 is fresh from the update or after the load of firewall configurations. The security application, like the antivirus or a privacy guard, can sometimes cut off your connection entirely after sensing a internal changes.
Hope it resolves your issues.