A Kernel is the central component of an Operating System. The Kernel is also said to be the heart of the Operating System. It is responsible for managing all the processes, memory, files, etc. The Kernel functions at the lowest level of the Operating System. It acts as an interface (bridge) between the user-level application (software) and the hardware. Therefore, the communication between the software and the hardware is done via the Kernel.
Following are the functions of a Kernel:
Access Computer resource: A Kernel can access various computer resources like the CPU, I/O devices and other resources. It acts as a bridge between the user and the resources of the system.
Resource Management: It is the duty of a Kernel to share the resources between various process in such a way that there is uniform access to the resources by every process.
Memory Management: Every process needs some memory space. So, memory must be allocated and deallocated for its execution. All these memory management is done by a Kernel.
Device Management: The peripheral devices connected in the system are used by the processes. So, the allocation of these devices is managed by the Kernel.
Hope you will get and idea how the kernel is working in operating system.