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I have question regarding caching:

To use cache memory, main memory is divided into cache lines, typically 32 or 64 bytes long. an entire cache line is cached at once. what is the advantage of caching an entire line instead of a single byte or word at a time?

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For each cached  unit, you need a register to hold the bits of the location which are not in the cache, and (all the more extravagantly), a comparator to distinguish a reserve hit. For a byte cache in a 64 piece address space, you would burn through eight fold the amount of memory on the tag ram as in the cache, and most likely three fold the number of gates again in the comparator.

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